This article is first published in Wasat, edition no. 18/December 2017. Click here for the original source.
Towards a Common Balanced Standpoint on Apostasy for Singapore’s Asatizah Community
By Ustaz Muhammad Haniff Hassan
(This article is an edited and improved version of a Malay article published by Berita Harian in two parts under titles, “Kesepakatan tangani isu murtad” (19 May 2006) and “Murtad: Hukum menurut ulama semasa” (26 May 2006).)
The objective of this article is to highlight the complexity of the issue of apostasy within the unique context of Singapore’s Muslim community. It delves into key pillars towards building a balanced standpoint and humbly proposes a possible way forward.
Background on apostasy
Apostasy is regarded a grave sin in Islam. The Qur`an contains many verses that disprove apostasy. The severe gravity of apostasy in Islam has an impact to the continued existence of any Muslim community. Muslims generally show grave disapproval, concern and will not condone any act of apostasy by fellow Muslims.
However, calmness and rationality must be the order of the day on this issue. We should strive to put the issue in the right perspective based on sound theological understanding rooted in the shari`ah and with further historical facts and contemporary sociological data.
Singapore’s context and recent developments
It is inevitable for Singapore’s Muslim community to be confronted with apostasy issue. Muslim community in Singapore must be careful not to be overwhelmed by emotion when facing this issue; especially given that we live in a multi-cultural and multi-religious context.
It remains to be seen how the community across all segments – asatizah/ulama, community leaders, Muslim civil societies, ordinary people etc. – could be guided towards a commonly held position that is, principled, contextual and civil.
This apostasy issue was raised and discussed by Ridzuan Wu; a former President of Muslim Converts Association of Singapore, popularly known as Darul Arqam, in his book Readings in Cross Cultural Da`wah. At the time of publication, Wu’s book did not receive due attention, until an excerpt was published in Berita Harian (7 April 2006).Unfortunately, the publication did not attract immediate reaction from community leaders.
Recently, efforts were made to familiarise local asatizah community on the apostasy issue. Closed door sessions were organised. Foreign speakers who are specialists in the subject matter were invited to share with local asatizah the development of contemporary theological position on apostasy and freedom of religion in Islam where the asatizah were encouraged to actively debate the issue.
However, the general sentiment among the asatizah community was one of reticence and there is no common explicit stand on the apostasy issue that is similar to the Charter of Moderation in PERGAS Moderation in Islam book.
Towards a balanced standpoint
The good starting point on this issue is to recognise that apostasy is inevitable and it is part and parcel of God’s natural law. The Qur’an states that part of the natural law is the presence of a continuous dialectic relationship between opposing ideas/religions until the End of Time. The Qur’an also states that God guides whom He wishes to Islam or other religions. As a result, some individuals would accept Islam, while some would choose others and some who have chosen or born into a religion might chose Islam at some point of their life and vice versa.
Apostasy incidents were also reported during the life of the Prophet and among his companions who received his direct guidance and da`wah. A companion by the name of Tulaihah bin Khuwailid was an apostate from Islam and claimed to be a prophet during the Prophet’s life time, although he reverted to Islam during the rule of Abu Bakr, the First Caliph, after his army was defeated in a battle. A companion who was among early converts of Islam became Christian after migration to Abyssinia. Another companion who was a Christian became Muslim and was appointed as the Prophet’s scribe. Later on, he returned back to Christianity and claimed that the Prophet did not know much except what he taught him from Christianity. Another companion, Abdullah bin Abi Sarh left Islam and joined the Meccans who were the enemy of the Prophet. However, he repented and returned back to Islam and was appointed a governor by Uthman, the Third Caliph. In fact, the Prophet signed a peace agreement with his Meccan enemy known as the Treaty of Hudaibiyahwhich guarantees anyone who runs away from Medina i.e. those who left Islam, to join the Meccans would not be repatriated back. Finally, many Arab tribes left Islam and rebel against the newly appointed Caliph after the death of the Prophet.
The Prophet himself, despite being the most dedicated and wise preacher of Islam, could not prevent apostasy incidents during his life time. His attitude and stand on the matter is to manage them when they occurred, not to eliminate it from happening.
When we assess contemporary issues facing Islam in Singapore, it is pertinent to take a balanced overview in the larger scheme of things pertaining to da`wah. Apostasy must be treated as one of many serious challenges within da`wah that requires the Muslim community’s attention and action. Thus, it must be assessed in accordance to the overall priorities vis-à-vis all the challenges and problems as required by fiqh al-awlawiyat (jurisprudence of priorities).
Taking a helicopter view of the overall priorities and the larger picture may highlight that this apostasy issue may not be the top most priority that needs immediate attention, despite being a grave sin theologically.
Similarly, the issue must also be balanced with the need for preservation and attainment of other maslahah (benefit) or prevention and elimination of other dharar (harm).
One way of looking at the issue is to make a simple deduction between the number of people leaving Islam (loss) and the number who convert to it (gain). If there are more gains than losses, the issue may not be as serious as one may perceive.
In a similar vein, if we look back at the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Prophet accepted the lopsided conditions in the treaty because he took into consideration the larger picture and maslahah at the time and in the future. History proved that the Prophet was correct in his decision. Due to the peaceful conditions brought about after the Treaty, the number of people converting to Islam increased exponentially compared to pre-Treaty period. The period after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah allowed the Prophet to focus all his resources on peaceful da`wah without fear of war and hostility from the Meccans and their allies.
It is impossible to call upon Muslim community to strive for a zero apostasy rate. This kind of rhetoric fuels possibly dangerous enthusiasm and emotions, but, in actual fact, it is an unrealistic proposition which goes against God’s natural law. Such a suggestion assumes that we could be better than the Prophet in our da`wah.
Two key pillars for a balanced standpoint
This article highlights two key pillars for a balanced standpoint on the issue. Firstly it is crucial to rethink the dominant theological rule on apostasy. Secondly a clear guiding principle can reiterate the proper social conduct and norms to take towards apostates we encounter.
Rethinking of the dominant theological rule
The discussion on apostasy in Islam cannot be separated from Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) standpoint pertaining to the punishment of apostates.
The dominant view pertaining to the punishment of apostates among Muslim scholars is death penalty after all the necessary due process has been exhausted i.e. investigation, proper trial, conviction and opportunity for repentance.
However, it must be highlighted that there are differences of opinion among scholars on the punishment of the death penalty. These differences of opinion have existed since the classical period.
Abd Al-Razzaq Al-San`aniy in his book titled Al-Musannaf related a few differing opinions from the early generation of Muslim scholars. Among them is a view held by Al-Nakha’iy related by Sufyan Al-Thawriy that an apostate is required only to repent. In another report, a companion by the name of Anas asked Umar about the punishment for apostasy. Umar answered that he preferred to arrest the person and demand repentance from him. If he refused, Umar would send him to prison. It was reported also that Umar bin Abd Al-Aziz instructed his governor, Maymun bin Mahran, to impose jizyah (poll-tax imposed on non-Muslim subject) and to leave them with their religion.
Al-Baji, a Maliki scholar, wrote in his book titled Al-Muntaqa Sharh Al-Muwatta’, viewed that apostasy is an abomination with no specific hudud law.
When commenting on a hadith on the death penalty for apostate, Ibn Taimiyah opined in his book titled Al-Sarim Al-Maslul that the hadith refers to a person who has committed both apostasy and hirabah (serious crime involving violence and threat to public order such as armed robbery, banditry and terrorism).
The Hanafite school of jurisprudence (mazhab) holds to the view that punishment for apostasy does not fall under hudud law which are immutable. Scholars of this school regard apostasy as an offence under ta’zir punishment; where power to determine and implement falls under the prerogative and discretionary power of Muslim authorities. This also includes power not to impose any criminal punishment at all.
Based on these differences above and the contemporary realities today, current Muslim scholars have attempted a critical review of the dominant fiqh position that stipulates death penalty for apostasy.
Among them is Mahmud Shaltut, former Grand Shaykh of Al-Azhar University. In his book titled Al-Islam; `Aqidah Wa Shari`ah, he was of the view that apostasy only does not entail death penalty. A similar view was expressed by Muhammad Salim Al-`Awwa in his book titled Fi Usul Al-Nizam Al-Jina`iy.
Islamic Law of Apostasy and Its Modern Applicability: A Case From the Sudan, by Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na`im, Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam, by Abdullah Saeed dan Hassan Saeed, Is Apostasy a Capital Crime in Islam, by Jamal Badawi, and La Ikrah Fi Al-Din: Ishkaliyah Al-Riddah Wa Al-Murtaddin Min Sadr Al-Islam Ila Al-Yawm, by Taha Jabir Alalwani.
The crux of the various works from some contemporary Muslim scholars as exemplified in the above is that Islam does not command a specific punishment for apostasy such as death penalty, although it is undoubtedly a grave sin. The death penalty mentioned in scriptural evidences and the war against apostates during the rule of Abu Bakr, the First Caliph, was not due to apostasy alone. It involved other serious offences such as hirabah, treason and rebellion against the Muslim ruler that threatened public security.
The scholars view that action against apostasy falls under the discretionary power of the Muslim authority depending on the maslahah of the time. Furthermore, the differences of opinion among Muslim scholars should provide flexibility for contemporary Muslim scholars to formulate new measures and approaches that better suit the current context, instead of preserving and defending the dominantly held view.
A literature review among contemporary Muslim scholars since 1960s to date has revealed an effort to review and rethink the classical dominant view. The review also highlights that notion that Muslims are indeed able to reform and rethink past theological rulings or ideas. Most importantly, the conservative and extremist voices among Muslims should not be used as the sole yardstick to measure Muslims all over the world.
When thinking about a legal action against apostates today, it is also pertinent to reflect upon a hadith where a witness reported to the Prophet that Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul had uttered a blasphemous words against him which made Umar volunteer to take action to chop off his head. In response, the Prophet said “Leave him, so the people will not say that Muhammad kills his companions.” (Narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
It can be implied from the hadith above that the public’s perception towards Islam and Muslims is a valid consideration in practicing the religion. It can also be deduced from it that Muslims are allowed to avoid any act that could lead towards a negative perception of Islam, even though the act is commanded by the religion.
Some Muslims may view the death penalty for apostates held by classical Muslim scholars as irrelevant in Singapore. By taking into account the secular nature of Singapore and the minority status of Muslims, it is unrealistic and impossible for the Muslim community in Singapore to be able to implement such a punishment or even act punitively upon those who chose to leave Islam out of their free will.
The current events in other countries signals an increasing urgency for a concerted effort to guide and engage Muslims on the issue to ensure that these external experiences of other countries will not significantly influence Singapore Muslims’ religious understanding and practice.
In the United Kingdom, some Muslims have campaigned for the implementation of shari`ah which included punishment against apostates under the Sharia4UK banner. This has led to similar campaign in other countries, such as Sharia4Belgium, Sharia4Australia, Sharia4Holland, Sharia4Spain, Sharia4Italy and Sharia4Czechia. Despite the fact that all these countries are secular with minority Muslim populations, and the chances such campaigns would be successful are unrealistic, these campaigns have nevertheless resulted in serious social problems to the local authorities and the Muslim community at large.
Proper social conduct and norms towards apostates
The right social conduct and norms towards apostates are equally important to the contextual theological stand. The way Muslims treat former Muslims at a social level has an impact on the image of Islam and Muslims. These behavioral norms are especially relevant to the immediate relative or family members and, to some extent, Muslim counsellors, social workers and asatizah who may have to deal with apostates when the case was brought to their attention.
The following is an excerpt taken of an online interview with a self-claimed agnostic, Mr. Zim Aliwal and his experiences ever since he chose to leave Islam.
“For 26-year-old Zim Aliwal, four nights spent sleeping on the staircase landing outside his HDB flat has turned into six years since he last set foot at home or saw his family.
As for what kept him going, he tells me: “One of the last things my mum said to me was, ‘You will never survive. You will never make it. You will come back to me begging for forgiveness.’ That was the exact opposite of what she should have said….
Four nights after being thrown out of the house, Zim decided to leave home for good. He packed two bags, hopped into a cab, and left for the hostel 5Footway Inn in Kampong Glam…
Zim relates that a person like him is viewed by the community, “the “Malay pariah”, someone who has “stepped out of the culture and the inner circle”.”
While this case is simply one anecdote, an honest reflection would concede that negative treatment towards apostates is not a singular incident, even though the severity differs. Various social studies have established that intolerance by family and community in such incidents is common. Thus, the same experience also could be found and related by those who leave other religions when converting to Islam. In some situations, the difficulty to deal with the incident by a family or community leads to violence to the person or sectarian conflict between Muslim and non-Muslim communities.
Singapore experienced such a conflict during the Maria Hertogh riot in 1950. A Dutch girl living with Muslim foster parents was taken back to her biological Christian parents by a Court Order. It resulted in a severe outbreak of violence with many lives lost and injured and damaged properties. This deeply traumatic incident is a crucial reminder of the importance for Singapore to safeguard its multi-ethnic and multi-religious ethos. It is hoped that it will be the last of such an incident in Singapore.
To mitigate such risks, theologically sound social conduct and norms at a familial and community level when dealing with such apostate incidents need to be socialised deeper among the Muslim community.
The first consideration is the principle of “hate the sin, not the sinner”. This principle continues to be deliberated by many contemporary Muslim scholars. Several supportive arguments have been made in this regard.
For example, Prophets Ibrahim, Nuh, Lot and Muhammadcontinued to show affection to their father, son, wife and uncle respectively, despite their choice of not embracing the same religion. Some of them are reportedly hostile to the Prophets, despite being shown love.
Furthermore, Islam recognises that a person’s door towards repentance is not closed as long he is alive. Stories of sinners discovering or rediscovering the truth is not uncommon. One such case is the previously mentioned Tulaihah bin Khuwailid and Abdullah bin Sarh. Both returned back to Islam and served Islam well. This can be achieved best when there is continuous da’wah with sustained attitude of compassion and gracious relationships remain present with former Muslims.
We remain compassionate and gracious in our reaction to help and rehabilitate those who had committed other sins and immoral acts such as drug abuse, pregnancy out of wedlock, teen offenders and those who are caught in crime due to poverty. There is no reason it cannot be applied to apostasy. Highly complex reasons are present when a person chooses to leave Islam. They should not be made to feel guilty for some of them. Reactionary measure such as ostracism is entirely unjust.
Guidance from Singapore Muslim institutions and scholars
There are institutional bodies in Singapore to manage the issues of the Muslim community. They are the Singapore Islamic Scholars and the Religious Teachers Association (PERGAS). The Office of Mufti (OOM) at the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (MUIS) is woven into the fabric of state governance as a government-linked statutory board. These bodies represent the voice of Muslim scholars and Islamic religious authority in Singapore. However, these bodies have yet to issue a statement or published irsyad (theological guidance) specifically on apostasy and apostates.
There has been previous ground breaking progress made by these religious bodies. In the past, lengthy and theologically sound deliberations were made by PERGAS during the `Ulama Convention 2003 and `Ulama Conference 2017. The outcomes of these events led to many controversies moving towards a principled resolution with a common standpoint for the benefit of Muslim community in Singapore.
A broad foundation for a balanced contemporary standpoint was established by PERGAS in their book Moderation in Islam in the Context of Muslim Community in Singapore. This book was published as a result of the `Ulama Convention in 2003 that was convened to deliberate the meaning of a moderate understanding and practice of Islam in Singapore.
Three key ideas on Islamic and Muslim moderation in Singapore can be discerned from this book. Consequentially, the issue of apostasy can then be implicitly inferred.
Firstly, PERGAS made the assertion that implementation of hudud law is not obligatory for Muslims in Singapore considering that the country is not an Islamic state and Muslims as a minority of the population will have priorities and challenges that differ from their brethren in Muslim majority countries.
The traditional theological dominant view of apostasy regards it as a crime under hudud that is punishable by death after due process. By taking the above assertion that implementation of hududlaw is not obligatory for Muslims in Singapore, we can then ascertain what the correct extrapolation on the issue of apostasy.
Secondly, the idea of non-violence remains central to the interests of Muslims in Singapore. In the published Charter of Moderation, PERGAS asserts that, “We are committed to safeguarding peace. We are not harsh and violent in religious practice, nor in achieving our aspirations. We understand jihad in its broader meaning. Armed jihad is only against those who declare war on us.”
Thirdly, PERGAS calls upon Muslims to uphold the rule of law in every religious endeavour in Singapore numerous times in the book.
“In practising religion and upholding it, we are committed to using peaceful means, in accordance with the law…”
“We will always strive to be law-abiding in practising our religion…”
“As a citizen of Singapore, we have the right to voice our views on what is national interest, albeit with wisdom, and according to the law…”
“We are committed to respecting the principles of democracy in social interactions and in our efforts to achieve the aspirations of the Muslim community. It is on this premise that we commit to constantly abide by the laws and regulations in our actions (emphasis is mine).”
Based on these three ideas, it is ideal that a special irsyad by PERGAS and MUIS be deliberated to shape a principled framework when dealing with apostasy issue specifically for the Singapore Muslim community
This is similar to the stand in 2017 made by both PERGAS and MUIS regarding the correct meaning of “fansurna `ala al-qawm al-kafirin (grant us victory over infidels)” (the Qur’an, 2:286). A controversy had arisen after a video of a foreign national imam who recited the above supplication during Friday congregation which circulated online and shocked Singapore’s multi-religious communities. Both PERGAS and MUIS firmly reiterated that the verse does not refer to all non-Muslims, but to those who are hostile to Islam and Muslims. Furthermore, both institutions strongly affirmed that a basis of peace a mutual respect should guide Muslim and non-Muslim relations as in the Qur’an, 60:8-9.
Wasatiyah (justly balanced) must be the guiding principle when addressing the issue of apostasy in Singapore. Two points are critical for consideration in order to achieve wasatiyah.
Firstly, we must recognise that apostasy is a complex issue. Multiple factors are involved such as psychology, economy, educational background, family and religious learning. It is far too simplistic and naïve to point the finger to asatizah and other religious institutions for not doing enough da`wah in the community or to blame modern institutions and media for promoting secularism and hedonism among Muslims. It cannot be addressed simply by educating the Muslim public that apostasy is forbidden (haram) and a grave sin that must be avoided.
A deep collaboration between Muslim scholars and scholars of other disciplines is necessary for a thorough deliberation on the apostasy issue. A good starting point would include inter-disciplinary insights from experts in qualitative sciences of sociology, psychology, economics, humanities and theology coupled with quantitative surveyed data. By taking in all possible perspectives, we are able to take into account the special consideration to the unique context of Singapore.
Secondly, as a starting point, it is critical to have a consensus among asatizah on what is the right theological position towards apostasy and social norms of behavior towards apostates because asatizah is a key segment responsible for guiding the Muslim community on theological matters.
Issues such as theological sanction vis-à-vis freedom of religion and rule of law, persuasive and preventive measures need to be thoughtfully deliberated. This consensus among asatizah can be a good starting point to build towards a broad framework together with religious institutions, civil society and other stakeholders. An ever increasing globalized context makes it pertinent for key stakeholders of Singapore’s Muslim community to build a consensus based on sound theological footing.
This article has reiterated the unique contextual backdrop for Singapore’s Muslim community. It highlighted previous precedents on apostasy in Islamic history, various examples of apostates during the Prophet’s time and the more recent attempts by contemporary Islamic scholars to address the issue.
The article has attempted to provide constructive contribution on the basis of wasatiyah as a way to move forward. Two key pillars necessary for further progress was highlighted. Firstly, an informed rethinking of the dominant theological rule on apostasy; and secondly, a clear guiding principle to establish the proper social conduct and norms to take towards apostates we encounter.
The article also humbly proposes a multi-faceted and integrated approach together with consensus among asatizah is needed to achieve wasatiyah on the issue of apostasy. As theological guardians for the Muslim community, it is incumbent on us to further the deliberation on apostasy, so our community can move towards a compassionate and principled stance on the matter.
See for examples, the Qur’an, 2:108, 2:217, 3:86, 3:90, 3:106, 3:177, 4:137, 5:54, 16:106, 22:11 and 47:25.
“Muslim apostates threatened over Christianity” (2007), The Telegraph, 9 December, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1571970/Muslim-apostates-threatened-over-Christianity.html (20 October 2017).
See for examples, “Prophet Mohammed Cartoon Controversies Timeline” (2015), Telegraph, 4 May, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/11341599/Prophet-Muhammad-cartoons-controversy-timeline.html (24 October 2017); Lizzie Dearden (2015), “Charlie Hebdo protests: Five dead as churches and French flags burn in Niger riots over Prophet Mohamed cover”, Independent, 17 January, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/charlie-hebdo-protests-five-dead-as-churches-and-french-flags-burn-in-niger-riots-over-cover-9985195.html(20 October 2017).
See Ridzuan Wu (ed.) (2001), Readings in Cross-Cultural Da`wah, Singapore: Muslim Converts Association of Singapore.
Ridzuan Wu (2006), “Cara kita tanggapi murtad”, Berita Harian, 7 April.
See Pergas (2004), Moderation in Islam in the Context of Muslim Community in Singapore, Singapore: Pergas, pp. 316-24.
See for examples the Qur’an, 2:217, 4:89, 11:118-9, 13:17, 17:81, 21:18, 34:48-9, 38:79-82 and 61:8-9.
See for examples the Qur’an, 10:99, 12:103, 14:27, 16:93, 18:17, 35:36-7 and 28:56.
Al-Zahabi (2001), Siyar A`alam Al-Nubala’, no place: Muassasat Al-Risalah, vol. p. 317.
Abadi (1995), `Awn Al-Ma`bud Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Nikah, Bab Al-Sadaq, No place: Dar Al-Fikr, available at http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?flag=1&bk_no=55&ID=3578 (20 October 2017).
Al-Mubarakfuri (1996), Sealed Nectar: Bibliography of Prophet Muhammad, Saudi Arabia: Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, pp. 339-49.
Ibn Kathir (2003), Al-Bidayah Wa Al-Nihayah, No place: Dar `Alam Al-Kutub, vol. 9, pp. 437-44, available at http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=708&idto=708&bk_no=59&ID=774 (20 October 2017).
Al-Mubarakfuri (1996), pp. 346-8.
Muhammad Salim Al-`Awwa (n. d.), Fi Usul Al-Nizam Al-Jina`iy, Qahirah: Dar Al-Ma`arif, p. 141.
`Abd Al-Razzaq Al-San`ani (1983), Al-Musannaf, Karachi: Dar Al-Tawzi`, pp. 164-77.
Al-Baji (1332H), Al-Muntaqa Sharh Al-Muwatta’, Qahirah: Dar Al-Sa`adah, vol. 5, p. 282.
Ibn Taimiyah (1983), Al-Sarim Al-Maslul `Ala Shatim Al-Rasul, Saudi Arabia: Al-Haris Al-Watani Al-Sa`udi, pp. 324-5.
Taha Jabir Al-Alwani (2012), Apostasy in Islam: A Historical and Scriptural Analysis, Herndon: IIIT, pp. 14-5.
Mahmud Shaltut (2001), Al-Islam: `Aqidah Wa Shari`ah, Qahirah: Dar Al-Shuruq, pp. 280-1.
Al-`Awwa (n. d.), pp. 150-8.
Abdullah Saeed and Hassan Saeed (2016), Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam, New York: Routledge, pp. 69-98, and 167-176.
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na`im (1986), “Islamic Law of Apostasy and Its Modern Applicability: A Case From the Sudan”, Religion, vol. 16. No. 3, pp. 197-224.
Taha Jabir Al-`Alwani (2006), La Ikrah Fi Al-Din: Ishkaliyah Al-Riddah Wa Al-Murtaddin Min Sadr Al-Islam Ila Al-Yawm, Qahirah: Maktabat Al-Shuruq Al-Dawliyah, pp. 175-6.
Julian Wong (2017), “6 Years Ago, He Left Islam For the Street”, Ricemedia, available at http://ricemedia.co/6-years-ago-he-left-islam-for-the-streets/ (24 October 2017). See also Simon Cottee (2015), “For Muslim apostates, giving up their faith can be terrifying, alienating and dangerous”, National Post, 2 January, available at http://nationalpost.com/holy-post/for-muslim-apostates-giving-up-their-faith-can-be-terrifying-dangerous-and-alienating (24 October 2017); Simon Cottee (2015), The Apostates: When Muslims Leave Islam, London: Hurst.
See Simon Cottee (2015), “For Muslim apostates, giving up their faith can be terrifying, alienating and dangerous”, National Post, 2 January, available at http://nationalpost.com/holy-post/for-muslim-apostates-giving-up-their-faith-can-be-terrifying-dangerous-and-alienating (24 October 2017); Simon Cottee (2015), The Apostates: When Muslims Leave Islam, London: Hurst.
Singapore Infopedia (n. d.), “Maria Hertogh riots”, National Library Board, available at http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_83_2005-02-02.html (24 October 2017).
The Qur’an, 19:42-8.
Pergas (2004), pp. 129.
Ibid, p. 315.
Ibid, pp. 103, 177, 180 and 315.
Pergas, Pernyataan Media: Panduan Agama Dalam Mendoakan Terhadap Penganut Agama Lain (Media Statement; Religious Guidance on Making Prayers Towards People of Other Faiths), 3 April 2017, available at http://www.pergas.org.sg/media/MediaStatement/mediarelease_PanduanAgamaDoaTerhadapPenganutAgamaLain_3April.pdf(24 October 2017); Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura, Media Statement on the Case of Mr. Nalla Mohamed Abdul Jameel, 3 April 2017, available at http://www.muis.gov.sg/documents/Media%20Statement%20on%20the%20case%20of%20Mr%20Nalla%20Mohamed%20Abdul%20Jameel.pdf(24 October 2017).